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Conjunctions

You use conjunctions to connect different phrases within a sentence.
The easiest conjunction is "and". I like dogs and I like cats.
The use of different conjunctions makes your texts more fluent and interesting. Only using "and" would be really boring…
You have to differentiate between two different kinds of conjunctions: coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. "And" is a coordinating conjunction.

Konjunktionen

Man benutzt Konjunktionen, um einzelne Satzteile innerhalb eines Satzes zu verbinden.
Die einfachste Konjunktion ist "and". I like dogs and I like cats.
Die Verwendung von verschiedenen Konjunktionen macht deinen Text flüssiger und interessanter. Immer nur "and" zu benutzen wäre ziemlich langweilig…
Du musst zwischen zwei verschiedenen Sorten von Konjunktionen unterscheiden: nebenordnende und unterordnende Konjunktionen. "And" ist eine nebenordnende Konjunktion.

Difference

Coordinating conjunctions connect two main clauses. Subordinating conjunctions connect a main clause with a subordinate clause. They emphasise the main clause more than the subordinate clause.

Unterschied

Nebenordnende Konjunktionen verbinden zwei Hauptsätze. Unterordnende Konjunktionen verbinden einen Hauptsatz mit einem Nebensatz. Sie betonen den Hauptsatz mehr als den Nebensatz.

Nebenordnende Konjunktionen

 
Konjunktion
 
Beispielsatz
 
and
 
He was doing his homework and cooking dinner at the same time.
 
or
 
Would you like to come with us or would you rather stay at home?
 
but
 
I like pop music but I prefer classical music.
 
both … and
 
I travelled to Spain and visited both Barcelona and Madrid.
 
either … or
 
You could either wear a dress or a skirt.
 
neither … nor
 
Neither does he like Asian food nor sushi.
 
not only … but also
 
He not only studies three subjects but also has a job as a waiter.
 
 
 

Subordinating Conjunctions

There are numerous different subordinating conjunctions. They can be divided in groups referring to time, reason and condition. Some subordinating conjunctions do not fit into any of these groups, though.

Unterordnende Konjunktionen

Es gibt sehr viele verschiedene unterordnende Konjunktionen. Man kann sie in Gruppen unterteilen, je nachdem ob sie sich auf Zeit, Grund oder Umstände beziehen. Manche der unterordnenden Konjunktionen passen jedoch in keine dieser Gruppen.

Nebensätze mit Zeitangaben

 
Unterordnende Konjunktion (Zeit)
 
Beispielsatz
 
after
 
He found his keys after he had been looking for them for hours.
 
as
 
I had just left the house as it suddenly started raining.
 
as soon as
 
I'll call you as soon as I know more about it.
 
before
 
You should better start studying before it is too late.
 
since
 
The children seem unhappy since their father has left the family.
 
till/until
 
I won't tell you until you promise you will keep it as a secret.
 
not until
 
It was not until he was standing directly in front of me that I recognized Tim.
 
when
 
We were in the middle of a discussion when without a warning Mr Smith left.
 
whenever
 
My mom buys chocolate for me whenever I come home.
 
while
 
Lara was already asleep while Jenny kept playing with her toys.
 
 
 

Unterordnende Konjunktionen der Ursache

  • I do not want to come over for dinner because I really do not like sausages.
  • Since almost everybody was late, the meeting had to start half an hour later.
  • The match was not difficult for him as he was a really good chess player.
Wenn du eine Bedingung ausdrücken willst, musst du eine der folgenden Konjunktionen benutzen. Für weitere Informationen zu einem ähnlichen Thema, gehe zu Bedingungssätze.
  • If you do not help me, we will not have a cake tonight.
  • We will go on a bike tour tomorrow unless it is raining very hard.
  • The children do not feel scared at night as long as their father reads them a story before going to sleep.

Weitere unterordnende Konjunktionen

  • The team lost the game although it is supposed to be very good.
  • We can only go as far as that.
  • I won't change my mind even if you ask me a hundred times.
  • The sun was really hot so that almost everybody got sunburned.
Now that you have read through all these examples, it is time to get some work done! Take a look at the exercise below and try to fill in the right conjunctions.
Jetzt, da du alle Beispiele durchgearbeitet hast, ist es an der Zeit, ein wenig selbst zu arbeiten! Sieh dir die nachfolgende Übung an und fülle die Lücken mit den richtigen Konjunktionen!
 
 
 
  • but
     
  • before
     
  • either … or
     
  • because
     
  • while
     
  • whenever
     
  • unless
     
  • neither … nor
     
  • I think we should … go to the cinema … rent a DVD.
     
  • We don't know the way! We will get totally lost … somebody can help us.
     
  • I am a vegetarian. I … eat meat … fish.
     
  • Joe is a good singer … Mary is good at sports.
     
  • You can call me … you're in trouble.
     
  • Toby should learn to think … he starts talking rubbish.
     
  • I do not want to go outside today … it is raining.
     
  • I love Spain … unfortunately I don't speak Spanish.
     
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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