Present:
(einfache Form der Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Tagesabläufe, regelmäßige Ereignisse oder Tatsachen, Gefühle oder Zustände beschreiben
 
Struktur
 
  • I/you/we/they + Infinitive
  • he/she/it + Infinitive + s
 
Signalwörter
 
always, never, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually, normally, regularly, etc. every day, every week, every month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I walk, she walks, they take, he takes
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I don’t walk, she doesn’t walk, they don’t take, he doesn’t take
 
Fragen
 
Do I walk? Does she walk? Do they take? Does he take?
 
 

Present: Present Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die genau im Moment des Sprechens geschehen, oder die ausnahmsweise geschehen; über einen Plan sprechen, der in der nahen Zukunft ausgeführt wird
 
Struktur
 
am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
at the moment, right now, just, now, at present, currently, Look!
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I am walking, she is walking, they are taking, he is taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I am not walking, she isn't walking, they aren't taking, he isn't taking
 
Fragen
 
Am I walking? Is she walking? Are they taking? Is he taking?
 
 

Past: Simple Past
(Einfache Form der Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Über Dinge sprechen, die in der Vergangenheit passiert sind und die zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens abgeschlossen oder vorbei sind
 
Struktur
 
  • Regular verbs: Infinitive + ed
  • Irregular verbs: simple past form
 
Signalwörter
 
yesterday, the other day, in 2009, when, at that time two days ago, a week ago, a month ago, … last night, last week, last month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I walked, she walked, they took, he took
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I didn't walk, she didn't walk, they didn't take, he didn't take
 
Fragen
 
Did I walk? Did she walk? Did they take? Did he take?
 
 

Past: Past Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Handlungen oder Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit abgelaufen sind, auch wenn etwas anderes den Ablauf plötzlich unterbrach
 
Struktur
 
was/were (simple past form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
while
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I was walking, she was walking, they were taking, he was taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I wasn't walking, she wasn't walking, they weren't taking, he wasn't taking
 
Fragen
 
Was I walking? Was she walking? Were they taking? Was he taking?
 
 

Past: Present Perfect Simple
(vollendete Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Das Ergebnis von etwas betonen, über Dinge sprechen, die zu einem unbekannten Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit geschahen, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit begannen und zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens noch nicht abgeschlossen sind
 
Struktur
 
have/has (simple present form of to have) + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
since, for, already, yet, before, ever, never, still not, so far, just, up to now, recently, until now
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I have walked, she has walked, they have taken, he has taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I haven't walked, she hasn't walked, they haven't taken, he hasn't taken
 
Fragen
 
Have I walked? Has she walked? Have they taken? Has he taken?
 
 

Past: Present Perfect Progressive
(Verlaufsform der vollendeten Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Die Dauer von etwas betonen, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit begannen und zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens immer noch andauern und/oder die Gegenwart beeinflussen
 
Struktur
 
have/has (simple present form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
for, since, how long, all day, all day long, the whole day/week/month/year
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I have been walking, she has been walking, they have been taking, he has been taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I haven't been walking, she hasn't been walking, they haven't been taking, he hasn't been taking
 
Fragen
 
Have I been walking? Has she been walking? Have they been taking? Has he been taking?
 
 

Past: Past Perfect Simple
(Vorvergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Betonen, dass etwas in der Vergangenheit aufhörte oder vorbei war, als etwas anderes begann, die Tatsache beschreiben, dass etwas vor einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt geschah
 
Struktur
 
had (simple past form of to have) + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
already, until that day, never, just
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I had walked, she had walked, they had taken, he had taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I hadn't walked, she hadn't walked, they hadn't taken, he hadn't taken
 
Fragen
 
Had I walked? Had she walked? Had they taken? Had he taken?
 
 

Past: Past Perfect Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Vorvergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Den Ablauf oder die Dauer von etwas beschreiben, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit geschahen und endeten oder die zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit vorbei waren
 
Struktur
 
had (simple past form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
for, since, how long, all day, after, before
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I had been walking, she had been walking, they had been taking, he had been taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I hadn't been walking, she hadn't been walking, they hadn't been taking, he hadn't been taking
 
Fragen
 
Had I been walking? Had she been walking? Had they been taking? Had he been taking?
 
 

Future: Will-Future
(Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die sicherlich in der Zukunft passieren werden, über Erwartungen, Hoffnungen, Annahmen oder spontane Entscheidungen sprechen
 
Struktur
 
will + Infinitive
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2021, expect, believe, hope, suppose, think, probably
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will walk, she will walk, they will take, he will take
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't walk, she won't walk, they won't take, he won't take
 
Fragen
 
Will I walk? Will she walk? Will they take? Will he take?
 
 

Future: Going-to-Future
(Zukunft mit going to)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Zukünftige Pläne, Ziele und Folgen beschreiben, über Dinge sprechen, die in der nahen Zukunft passieren werden
 
Struktur
 
am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + going to + Infinitive
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2011
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I am going to walk, she is going to walk, they are going to take, he is going to take
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I am not going to walk, she isn't going to walk, they aren't going to take, he isn't going to take
 
Fragen
 
Am I going to walk? Is she going to walk? Are they going to take? Is he going to take?
 
 

Future: Future Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die zukünftig ablaufen werden, über Dinge sprechen, die normalerweise in der Zukunft geschehen
 
Struktur
 
will + be + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2041
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will be walking, she will be walking, they will be taking, he will be taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't be walking, she won't be walking, they won't be taking, he won't be taking
 
Fragen
 
Will I be walking? Will she be walking? Will they be taking? Will he be taking?
 
 

Future: Future Perfect
(vollendete Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Über Dinge sprechen, die zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt in der Zukunft abgeschlossen oder vorbei sein werden
 
Struktur
 
will + have + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
until, before by the end of the day, by the end of the week, by the end of the month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will have walked, she will have walked, they will have taken, he will have taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't have walked, she won't have walked, they won't have taken, he won't have taken
 
Fragen
 
Will I have walked? Will she have walked? Will they have taken? Will he have taken?
 
 
 
 
You almost never use the past perfect simple on it's own. Most of the times you'll need it, it will be in connection with another sentence in a different tense. That is because with the past perfect, you talk about something that has taken place before something else.
Looking at the following examples carefully, you should gain an understanding for when to use the past perfect.
Man benutzt das Past Perfect fast nie alleine. In den meisten Fällen wird es in einem Satz vorkommen, indem auch noch eine andere Zeitform steht. Das liegt daran, dass man mit dem Past Perfect über etwas spricht, das vor etwas anderem stattgefunden hat.
Wenn du dir die folgenden Beispiele genau ansiehst, solltest du einen Einblick in die Funktionsweise des Past Perfect bekommen.
  • She gave a lecture on Africa after she had returned from a two year visit in Tanzania.
  • Lucas went after he had finished all his work.
  • It came to him as a surprise – until that day he had never thought about it that way.
  • We had just arrived when they already took us on a boat trip.
 
In the first exercise, fill in the gaps with the correct past perfect forms. If you read through the rules above carefully, this should not be a problem!
In der ersten Übung musst du die Lücken mit den passenden Formen des Past Perfect füllen. Wenn du dir die Regeln weiter oben gut durchgelesen hast, sollte das kein Problem sein!
 
 
  1.  Tina felt sick after she 
     two litres of cherry coke. (to drink)

     
  2.  The boy fell asleep after his father 
     him a story. (to read)

     
  3.  The girl ran away after she 
     the window. (to break)

     
  4.  The children 
     all the chocolate. (to eat)

     
  5.  The dog ran away after it's owner 
     at him. (to shout)

     
  6.  Jacob 
     Mary "stupid" and now Mary was very angry. (to call)

     
  7.  Zelda 
     to do her homework. (to forget)

     
 
 
 
In the second exercise, take a look at the example sentences and decide whether they use simple past, present perfect or past perfect. You should not do this exercise if you have not yet studied the simple past and the present perfect.
In der zweiten Übung musst du dir die Beispielsätze ansehen und dann entscheiden, ob sie im Simple Past, Present Perfect oder im Past Perfect stehen. Du solltest diese Übung nicht machen, wenn du nicht vorher die Units Simple Past Present Perfect bearbeitet hast!
 
 
  • Damien had eaten an apple.
     
  • Damien ate an apple.
     
  • Lisa had read a book.
     
  • Damien has eaten an apple.
     
  • Lisa read a book.
     
  • Lisa has read a book.
     
Simple Past
 
Past Perfect
 
Present Perfect
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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