Present:
(einfache Form der Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Tagesabläufe, regelmäßige Ereignisse oder Tatsachen, Gefühle oder Zustände beschreiben
 
Struktur
 
  • I/you/we/they + Infinitive
  • he/she/it + Infinitive + s
 
Signalwörter
 
always, never, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually, normally, regularly, etc. every day, every week, every month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I walk, she walks, they take, he takes
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I don’t walk, she doesn’t walk, they don’t take, he doesn’t take
 
Fragen
 
Do I walk? Does she walk? Do they take? Does he take?
 
 

Present: Present Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die genau im Moment des Sprechens geschehen, oder die ausnahmsweise geschehen; über einen Plan sprechen, der in der nahen Zukunft ausgeführt wird
 
Struktur
 
am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
at the moment, right now, just, now, at present, currently, Look!
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I am walking, she is walking, they are taking, he is taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I am not walking, she isn't walking, they aren't taking, he isn't taking
 
Fragen
 
Am I walking? Is she walking? Are they taking? Is he taking?
 
 

Past: Simple Past
(Einfache Form der Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Über Dinge sprechen, die in der Vergangenheit passiert sind und die zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens abgeschlossen oder vorbei sind
 
Struktur
 
  • Regular verbs: Infinitive + ed
  • Irregular verbs: simple past form
 
Signalwörter
 
yesterday, the other day, in 2009, when, at that time two days ago, a week ago, a month ago, … last night, last week, last month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I walked, she walked, they took, he took
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I didn't walk, she didn't walk, they didn't take, he didn't take
 
Fragen
 
Did I walk? Did she walk? Did they take? Did he take?
 
 

Past: Past Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Handlungen oder Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit abgelaufen sind, auch wenn etwas anderes den Ablauf plötzlich unterbrach
 
Struktur
 
was/were (simple past form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
while
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I was walking, she was walking, they were taking, he was taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I wasn't walking, she wasn't walking, they weren't taking, he wasn't taking
 
Fragen
 
Was I walking? Was she walking? Were they taking? Was he taking?
 
 

Past: Present Perfect Simple
(vollendete Gegenwart)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Das Ergebnis von etwas betonen, über Dinge sprechen, die zu einem unbekannten Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit geschahen, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit begannen und zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens noch nicht abgeschlossen sind
 
Struktur
 
have/has (simple present form of to have) + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
since, for, already, yet, before, ever, never, still not, so far, just, up to now, recently, until now
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I have walked, she has walked, they have taken, he has taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I haven't walked, she hasn't walked, they haven't taken, he hasn't taken
 
Fragen
 
Have I walked? Has she walked? Have they taken? Has he taken?
 
 

Past: Present Perfect Progressive
(Verlaufsform der vollendeten Vergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Die Dauer von etwas betonen, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit begannen und zum Zeitpunkt des Sprechens immer noch andauern und/oder die Gegenwart beeinflussen
 
Struktur
 
have/has (simple present form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
for, since, how long, all day, all day long, the whole day/week/month/year
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I have been walking, she has been walking, they have been taking, he has been taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I haven't been walking, she hasn't been walking, they haven't been taking, he hasn't been taking
 
Fragen
 
Have I been walking? Has she been walking? Have they been taking? Has he been taking?
 
 

Past: Past Perfect Simple
(Vorvergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Betonen, dass etwas in der Vergangenheit aufhörte oder vorbei war, als etwas anderes begann, die Tatsache beschreiben, dass etwas vor einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt geschah
 
Struktur
 
had (simple past form of to have) + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
already, until that day, never, just
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I had walked, she had walked, they had taken, he had taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I hadn't walked, she hadn't walked, they hadn't taken, he hadn't taken
 
Fragen
 
Had I walked? Had she walked? Had they taken? Had he taken?
 
 

Past: Past Perfect Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Vorvergangenheit)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Den Ablauf oder die Dauer von etwas beschreiben, Dinge beschreiben, die in der Vergangenheit geschahen und endeten oder die zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit vorbei waren
 
Struktur
 
had (simple past form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
for, since, how long, all day, after, before
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I had been walking, she had been walking, they had been taking, he had been taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I hadn't been walking, she hadn't been walking, they hadn't been taking, he hadn't been taking
 
Fragen
 
Had I been walking? Had she been walking? Had they been taking? Had he been taking?
 
 

Future: Will-Future
(Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die sicherlich in der Zukunft passieren werden, über Erwartungen, Hoffnungen, Annahmen oder spontane Entscheidungen sprechen
 
Struktur
 
will + Infinitive
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2021, expect, believe, hope, suppose, think, probably
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will walk, she will walk, they will take, he will take
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't walk, she won't walk, they won't take, he won't take
 
Fragen
 
Will I walk? Will she walk? Will they take? Will he take?
 
 

Future: Going-to-Future
(Zukunft mit going to)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Zukünftige Pläne, Ziele und Folgen beschreiben, über Dinge sprechen, die in der nahen Zukunft passieren werden
 
Struktur
 
am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + going to + Infinitive
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2011
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I am going to walk, she is going to walk, they are going to take, he is going to take
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I am not going to walk, she isn't going to walk, they aren't going to take, he isn't going to take
 
Fragen
 
Am I going to walk? Is she going to walk? Are they going to take? Is he going to take?
 
 

Future: Future Progressive
(Verlaufsform der Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Dinge beschreiben, die zukünftig ablaufen werden, über Dinge sprechen, die normalerweise in der Zukunft geschehen
 
Struktur
 
will + be + Infinitive + ing
 
Signalwörter
 
tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2041
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will be walking, she will be walking, they will be taking, he will be taking
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't be walking, she won't be walking, they won't be taking, he won't be taking
 
Fragen
 
Will I be walking? Will she be walking? Will they be taking? Will he be taking?
 
 

Future: Future Perfect
(vollendete Zukunft)

 
   
 
Gebrauch
 
Über Dinge sprechen, die zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt in der Zukunft abgeschlossen oder vorbei sein werden
 
Struktur
 
will + have + past participle
 
Signalwörter
 
until, before by the end of the day, by the end of the week, by the end of the month, …
 
Bejahte Aussage
 
I will have walked, she will have walked, they will have taken, he will have taken
 
Verneinte Aussage
 
I won't have walked, she won't have walked, they won't have taken, he won't have taken
 
Fragen
 
Will I have walked? Will she have walked? Will they have taken? Will he have taken?
 
 
 
  • What are you going to do tonight?
  • I am going to finish work at 7 o'clock.
  • I am absolutely sure that she is going to say "yes".
Fill out the empty gaps in the exercise below with the correct forms of the infinitives! Put them into the going-to-future!
In der nachfolgenden Übung sollst du die Lücken mit den richtigen Verbformen füllen! Übertrage sie ins Going-to Futur!
 
  1.  Mrs Suther 
     you where you can find that book. (to tell)

     
  2.  I 
     my sister at the airport. (to meet)

     
  3.  Tim and Andy 
     a party this weekend. (to throw)

     
  4.  Next Monday, I 
     to the doctor. (to go)

     
  5.  You 
     the new Batman film tonight, aren't you? (to see)

     
 
 
In the second exercise you can test your theoretical knowledge. Take a look at the different situations described below and decide whether you have to use will-future or going-to-future.
In der zweiten Übung kannst du dein theoretisches Wissen testen. Sieh dir die verschiedenen unten beschriebenen Situationen an und entscheide, ob du das Will-Futur oder das Going-to Futur benutzen musst.
 
  1. What tense do you use for assumptions about the future?
     
    • will-future
       
    • going-to-future
       
  2. If you talk about fixed plans in the future, what tense do you use?
     
    • going-to-future
       
    • will-future
       
  3. What tense do you use to express spontaneous decisions or ideas?
     
    • will-future
       
    • going-to-future
       
  4. If you are very sure that a certain thing is going to happen in the future, which tense do you need?
     
    • going-to-future
       
    • will-future
       
 
 
 

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